Wednesday, September 28, 2022

Trisha Woodworth: Indiana: Shaken Baby Syndrome; Major (Welcome) Development): Her conviction in connection with the death of her former friend's 8-month-old daughter (sentenced to a minimum of 20 years has been set aside..."The state's medical experts testified Maci died from shaken baby syndrome and likely suffered an injuries shortly before she became unconcious. Defense experts testified Maci likely suffered a stroke while in Woodworth's care April 15, 2016, as a result of a blood clot that formed after she fell April 11, 2016, at her parent's home while playing with a "jump-a-roo" toy.."..."Woodworth and her family members applied cold compresses to Maci and took her outside for fresh air in the minutes before calling 911, he said. "I think those are reasonable actions to take," he (Judge Cappas) said. In many neglect cases, the caregiver waits hours before seeking medical attention after a child is injured. Woodworth's case was different, he said. "So now I'm left with sentencing a woman to between 20 and 40 years in prison for arguably a nine-minute delay in calling the ambulance," he said."


PASSAGE OF THE DAY: "Judge Samuel Cappas listened to arguments from Woodworth's attorney Harold Hagberg and Lake County Supervisory Deputy Prosecutor Eric Randall about Woodworth's motion to correct errors.  However, the judge ultimately set aside Woodworth's conviction on the neglect count on his own motion. Cappas said Hagberg provided ineffective counsel at trial and concluded it would be an manifest injustice to sentence. Woodworth to a minimum of 20 years in prison on evidence presented at trial showing she waited less than 10 minutes to call for an ambulance after Maci became unresponsive. The judge said he was not reweighing the evidence. Cappas said Hagberg was clearly an experienced trial attorney, but asked if he had ever tried a criminal case before. Hagberg said Woodworth's case was his first criminal trial."

----------------------------------------------------

STORY: "Judge sets aside babysitter's conviction, by Reporter Sarah Reese, published by The NWI Times on  September 27, 2022.

GIST: "A Lake Criminal Court judge set aside a jury's verdict Tuesday in a case against a babysitter charged in connection with the death of her former friend's 8-month-old daughter in 2016.


Trisha Woodworth, 32, of Calumet Township, was convicted in July of a felony count of neglect of a dependent but acquitted of two felony counts of battery in the death of Maci Moor.


Judge Samuel Cappas listened to arguments from Woodworth's attorney Harold Hagberg and Lake County Supervisory Deputy Prosecutor Eric Randall about Woodworth's motion to correct errors. 


However, the judge ultimately set aside Woodworth's conviction on the neglect count on his own motion.


Cappas said Hagberg provided ineffective counsel at trial and concluded it would be an manifest injustice to sentence 

Woodworth to a minimum of 20 years in prison on evidence presented at trial showing she waited less than 10 minutes to call for an ambulance after Maci became unresponsive. The judge said he was not reweighing the evidence.


Cappas said Hagberg was clearly an experienced trial attorney, but asked if he had ever tried a criminal case before. Hagberg said Woodworth's case was his first criminal trial.

Hagberg never put any proposed plea offers on the record ahead of trial, and he didn't address the facts related to the neglect count in his closing arguments, Cappas said.



Randall said Hagberg was assisted by attorney Andreas Kyres and others from the Alvarez Law Office, all of whom are experienced criminal defense attorneys. 


He objected to Woodworth's release on her own recognizance, arguing she could be a flight risk, he said.


Cappas said Woodworth has appeared in court while on bond for years and was not a flight risk. He granted Kyres' request to release Woodworth.

Woodworth was expected to receive a new trial on one count of neglect of a dependent, a level 1 felony.


Prosecutors planned to consult with the Indiana attorney general's office about a possible appeal of Cappas' decision to set aside the July verdict, Randall said.


Cappas said both parties made logical arguments, and there were two different theories about what caused Maci's death.


The state's medical experts testified Maci died from shaken baby syndrome and likely suffered an injuries shortly before she became unconcious.


Defense experts testified Maci likely suffered a stroke while in Woodworth's care April 15, 2016, as a result of a blood clot that formed after she fell April 11, 2016, at her parent's home while playing with a "jump-a-roo" toy.


Hagberg said jurors' decision to acquit Woodworth of the battery counts showed the state didn't prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Woodworth caused the injury that resulted in Maci's death.



Randall said the jury had already weighed the credibility of evidence at trial, and it wasn't clear if they believed testimony from Woodworth's relatives about events the day Maci became unresponsive.


"Despite the acquittal, I believe the jury believed there was an injury that day," Randall said.


Evidence was presented that Maci's injury was inflicted, he said.

"They don't like it, but it was a reasonable verdict," he said.


Cappas appeared to agree with Hagberg's interpretation of the evidence.


Woodworth and her family members applied cold compresses to Maci and took her outside for fresh air in the minutes before calling 911, he said. 


"I think those are reasonable actions to take," he said.

In many neglect cases, the caregiver waits hours before seeking medical attention after a child is injured. Woodworth's case was different, he said.


"So now I'm left with sentencing a woman to between 20 and 40 years in prison for arguably a nine-minute delay in calling the ambulance," he said."


The entire story can be read at:


https://www.nwitimes.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/judge-sets-aside-babysitters-conviction-in-infants-death-nearly-six-years-ago/article_1a76001a-bc86-559c-b9a2-c46e0b18da98.html

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: I am monitoring this case/issue/resurce. Keep your eye on the Charles Smith Blog for reports on developments. The Toronto Star, my previous employer for more than twenty incredible years, has put considerable effort into exposing the harm caused by Dr. Charles Smith and his protectors - and into pushing for reform of Ontario's forensic pediatric pathology system. The Star has a "topic"  section which focuses on recent stories related to Dr. Charles Smith. It can be found at: http://www.thestar.com/topic/charlessmith. Information on "The Charles Smith Blog Award"- and its nomination process - can be found at: http://smithforensic.blogspot.com/2011/05/charles-smith-blog-award-nominations.html Please send any comments or information on other cases and issues of interest to the readers of this blog to: hlevy15@gmail.com.  Harold Levy: Publisher: The Charles Smith Blog;



SEE BREAKDOWN OF  SOME OF THE ON-GOING INTERNATIONAL CASES (OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENTAL USA) THAT I AM FOLLOWING ON THIS BLOG,  AT THE LINK BELOW:  HL:


https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/120008354894645705/4704913685758792985



FINAL WORD:  (Applicable to all of our wrongful conviction cases):  "Whenever there is a wrongful conviction, it exposes errors in our criminal legal system, and we hope that this case — and lessons from it — can prevent future injustices."

Lawyer Radha Natarajan:

Executive Director: New England Innocence Project;


—————————————————————————————————


FINAL, FINAL WORD: "Since its inception, the Innocence Project has pushed the criminal legal system to confront and correct the laws and policies that cause and contribute to wrongful convictions.   They never shied away from the hard cases — the ones involving eyewitness identifications, confessions, and bite marks. Instead, in the course of presenting scientific evidence of innocence, they've exposed the unreliability of evidence that was, for centuries, deemed untouchable." So true!

Christina Swarns: Executive Director: The Innocence Project;


Tuesday, September 27, 2022

Gary Bryant Jr: Rap lyrics, gang investigations, police, prosecutors, and the criminal courts: A bill before California Gov. Gavin Newsom would force prosecutors to seek a judge’s approval to introduce rap lyrics to a jury, KQLD reports. Reporter Nigel Duara neatly explores the 'junk science' nature of rap lyrics analysis - and why civil liberties advocates oppose its use in the criminal courts to reveal a defendant's mindset and as confessionals..."Civil liberties advocates are also challenging the practice in New York. “There’s a pretty large body of information and a pretty strong body of opinion that prosecutors and their gang experts have their heads on backwards,” said Stephen Munkelt, executive director of California Attorneys for Criminal Justice, which wrote in support of the bill. Munkelt compared gang investigations to evidence that has begun to be rooted out of courtrooms, like bite-mark analysis or polygraph tests."


PASSAGE OF THE DAY: "Andrea Dennis, a University of Georgia law professor who pioneered the analysis of creative expression in criminal trials and wrote the 2019 book Rap on Trial, reviewed Bryant’s trial’s transcripts for his appeal. “The prosecution utilized racially coded and inaccurate assumptions of rap music as criminal confessions and autobiographies and stereotypes of Black men as inherently dangerous criminals to secure Gary Bryant’s conviction,” she wrote. To show the mindset of prosecutors who use rap lyrics at trial, Dennis quoted from Bureau of Justice Assistance guidance to local prosecutors in 2004. “Invariably, by the time the jury sees the defendant at trial, his hair has grown out to a normal length, his clothes are nicely tailored, and he will have taken on the aura of an altar boy,” wrote Alan Jackson for the American Prosecutors Research Institute. “But the real defendant is a criminal wearing a do-rag and throwing a gang sign. Gang evidence can take a prosecutor a long way toward introducing that jury to that person.” According to Kuluk, that’s exactly what happened to Bryant: In court, his music videos and Facebook posts were introduced to the jury. He was photographed in a do-rag, and he made a letter “B” with his hands, which prosecutors alleged was a local gang sign."


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STORY: "A bill before Gov. Gavin Newsom would force prosecutors to seek a judge’s approval to introduce rap lyrics to a jury," by Reporter Nigel Duara, published by KQLD, on September 21, 2022.


GIST: "Gary Bryant Jr. exchanged gunfire with a man in an Antioch apartment parking lot on a July afternoon in 2014. Both were struck by bullets. Bryant survived and the other man died.


Police said it was part of a string of gang shootings in the East Bay. At trial, prosecutors alleged—and a jury agreed—that Bryant and an accomplice were guilty of first-degree murder.


Bryant, then 28, was a local rapper in Pittsburg who uploaded music videos to YouTube. In his lyrics, he talked about gang war, shooting at rivals and challenging other rappers. At Bryant’s trial, an Antioch police officer testified that the lyrics were key to understanding his criminal mindset.


When Bryant said the phrase “geeked up,” the police officer alleged, he meant he was armed with guns. His words “lay a demo,” the officer said, meant shooting at someone.


A University of California, Irvine, professor acting as a witness for Bryant disagreed, saying that “geeked up” was commonly understood to mean intoxicated, and “laying a demo” meant to record a track.


Bryant may have been convicted without the introduction of rap lyrics—prosecutors and police said he and another man were in the parking lot to rob a carload of people.

But readily using such lyrics as evidence in a criminal case may soon change in California.


A bill before Gov. Gavin Newsom would force prosecutors who want to use rap lyrics, or any other form of creative expression, to hold a pretrial hearing away from the jury to prove that the lyrics or other artistic expression are relevant to the case.


The bill by Democratic Assemblymember Reggie Jones-Sawyer of Los Angeles would require judges to balance the value of the evidence with the “undue prejudice” and racial bias possible when that evidence is presented to a jury. 


Assembly Bill 2799 passed the Legislature late last month, with no registered opposition.


Civil liberties advocates are also challenging the practice in New York.


“There’s a pretty large body of information and a pretty strong body of opinion that prosecutors and their gang experts have their heads on backwards,” said Stephen Munkelt, executive director of California Attorneys for Criminal Justice, which wrote in support of the bill.


Munkelt compared gang investigations to evidence that has begun to be rooted out of courtrooms, like bite-mark analysis or polygraph tests.


As early as 1991, prosecutors have used rap lyrics both to reveal a defendant’s mindset and as confessionals: They wanted juries to believe that rappers quite literally did the things they were rapping about.


In the 2000s, Louisiana prosecutors repeatedly used the lyrics of New Orleans rappers against them in murder trials, including Corey Miller, McKinley Phipps Jr. and, most recently, Torrence Hatch, who raps as Lil Boosie.


Nationwide, researchers have found approximately 500 cases of lyrics—almost always rap—introduced in state or federal trials.


Looking back, Bryant’s attorney, Evan Kuluk, said he would have challenged the introduction of lyrics at the 2017 trial, but research into the use of creative expression was in its infancy.


“I wish I had the information and the materials I have now with which to make the objection at that time,” he said.


“Unfortunately, when Mr. Bryant tried to explain to the jury the bigger cultural picture of rap music, he was shut down by prosecution objections that were mostly sustained.”


Kuluk’s office searched all Contra Costa County trials that resulted in appeal, and found that lyrics were introduced in 13 of them, all related to rap music. Ten of the defendants were Black and three were Latino. None was white.


Contra Costa County District Attorney Diana Becton declined to comment on the bill or Bryant’s case. Becton took office in September 2017, months after Bryant’s conviction.


Becton is a member of the progressive Prosecutors Alliance of California, a small group of district attorneys that supports alternatives to incarceration. The Prosecutors Alliance also declined to comment on the bill.


'When Mr. Bryant tried to explain to the jury the bigger cultural picture of rap music, he was shut down by prosecution objections that were mostly sustained.'Evan Kuluk, Gary Bryant's attorney


Bryant, sentenced to life in prison, is appealing his conviction, though his case isn’t explicitly about rap lyrics. Instead, he’s using a broader law from 2020, arguing that the original trial violated AB 2452, the Racial Justice Act. The act allows individuals to appeal their convictions if they can show prosecutors or their witnesses used racially discriminatory language to get a conviction.


Bryant is also seeking to remove the gang enhancements to his conviction, arguing both were improperly influenced by racist stereotypes.


Andrea Dennis, a University of Georgia law professor who pioneered the analysis of creative expression in criminal trials and wrote the 2019 book Rap on Trial, reviewed Bryant’s trial’s transcripts for his appeal.


“The prosecution utilized racially coded and inaccurate assumptions of rap music as criminal confessions and autobiographies and stereotypes of Black men as inherently dangerous criminals to secure Gary Bryant’s conviction,” she wrote.


To show the mindset of prosecutors who use rap lyrics at trial, Dennis quoted from Bureau of Justice Assistance guidance to local prosecutors in 2004.


“Invariably, by the time the jury sees the defendant at trial, his hair has grown out to a normal length, his clothes are nicely tailored, and he will have taken on the aura of an altar boy,” wrote Alan Jackson for the American Prosecutors Research Institute. “But the real defendant is a criminal wearing a do-rag and throwing a gang sign. Gang evidence can take a prosecutor a long way toward introducing that jury to that person.”


According to Kuluk, that’s exactly what happened to Bryant: In court, his music videos and Facebook posts were introduced to the jury. He was photographed in a do-rag, and he made a letter “B” with his hands, which prosecutors alleged was a local gang sign.


'The whole music industry uses violence in their songs, you know? But my son is not violent. Those lyrics don’t portray who he is.'Denise Holdman, Bryant's mother

The bill before the governor also highlights the role of gang investigators, who tend to be working police officers, academics or retired members of law enforcement.

In Bryant’s case, his attorney has challenged the prosecution’s use of an officer without academic training in gang investigations working in the department that investigated Bryant’s case. The officer later testified to the lyrics’ so-called meaning, which were contested by the defense.


Robert Grant III, a former Los Angeles police officer who now does consulting work in gang investigations, said the bill before Newsom would “narrow” the way gang investigators do their jobs.


“The question is really, what is the person rapping about?” Grant said. “Is it literally their participation in gang activities in this incident? Is what the substance is close enough to their actual physical activity?”


Grant said police officers often are legitimate experts in gang investigations. As beat cops or supervisors, they’re closest to the people they’re investigating, and most familiar with the use and intent of what might be very local slang.


“Defense attorneys always want to describe us officers as a bunch of knuckle-dragging thugs that just come up with opinions out of our butt,” Grant said. “We are a lot more intelligent about what we try to do in the field.”


'As much as they would like for (rap lyrics) to be outside of the consideration for us as experts, I still get to consider it now and I still will.'Robert Grant III, former Los Angeles police officer


“The whole music industry uses violence in their songs, you know?” Holdman said. “But my son is not violent. Those lyrics don’t portray who he is.”


Holdman will be in court Sept. 30, when Bryant has a hearing for a new trial.

Grant, the gang investigator, said proponents of the bill “hoping gang investigations will be minimized or destroyed” will be disappointed by the outcome.


“There’s going to be a lot of people upset when they realize that for me as an expert, I get to use both admissible and inadmissible evidence to describe my opinion,” Grant said, meaning he can still interpret what lyrics or gang signs mean.


“As much as they would like for (rap lyrics) to be outside of the consideration for us as experts, I still get to consider it now and I still will.”


The entire story can be read at:


https://www.kqed.org/arts/13919403/rap-on-trial-california-bill-would-limit-prosecutors-use-of-lyrics-as-evidence



PUBLISHER'S NOTE: I am monitoring this case/issue/resurce. Keep your eye on the Charles Smith Blog for reports on developments. The Toronto Star, my previous employer for more than twenty incredible years, has put considerable effort into exposing the harm caused by Dr. Charles Smith and his protectors - and into pushing for reform of Ontario's forensic pediatric pathology system. The Star has a "topic"  section which focuses on recent stories related to Dr. Charles Smith. It can be found at: http://www.thestar.com/topic/charlessmith. Information on "The Charles Smith Blog Award"- and its nomination process - can be found at: http://smithforensic.blogspot.com/2011/05/charles-smith-blog-award-nominations.html Please send any comments or information on other cases and issues of interest to the readers of this blog to: hlevy15@gmail.com.  Harold Levy: Publisher: The Charles Smith Blog;



SEE BREAKDOWN OF  SOME OF THE ON-GOING INTERNATIONAL CASES (OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENTAL USA) THAT I AM FOLLOWING ON THIS BLOG,  AT THE LINK BELOW:  HL:


https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/120008354894645705/4704913685758792985




FINAL WORD:  (Applicable to all of our wrongful conviction cases):  "Whenever there is a wrongful conviction, it exposes errors in our criminal legal system, and we hope that this case — and lessons from it — can prevent future injustices."

Lawyer Radha Natarajan:

Executive Director: New England Innocence Project;


—————————————————————————————————


FINAL, FINAL WORD: "Since its inception, the Innocence Project has pushed the criminal legal system to confront and correct the laws and policies that cause and contribute to wrongful convictions.   They never shied away from the hard cases — the ones involving eyewitness identifications, confessions, and bite marks. Instead, in the course of presenting scientific evidence of innocence, they've exposed the unreliability of evidence that was, for centuries, deemed untouchable." So true!

Christina Swarns: Executive Director: The Innocence Project;


Monday, September 26, 2022

Ryan Mays: California: Court-Marshall Hearing: The young sailor who has been accused by the U.S. Navy of aggravated arson and wilfully hazarding a vessel (against the advice of a military judge) in connection with a blaze on the 'USS Bonhomme Richard' which was docked for maintenance. Megan Rose, author of this stunning account, notes in Propublica that starting this week, Mays is being court-martialed in a military trial in San Diego. (Stay tuned for developments. HL)


STORY: "After the 'USS Bonhomme Richard' fire, investigators found missing fire hoses, a broken sprinkler system and other systemic failures. The Navy is still accusing a sailor of arson, against the advice of a military judge," by Megan Rose, published by ProPublica on September 22, 2022.  (Megan Rose, formerly Megan McCloskey, has investigated criminal justice and the military for ProPublica since 2013. She won the 2020 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting with two colleagues for a series examining how Navy and Marine Corps leadership failed to heed warnings and implement reforms leading up to several fatal accidents.)
SUB-HEADING: "Subject: The Navy accused him of arson. Its own investigation showed widespread safety failures."
GIST: (Author Megan Rose has written a superb account of the U.S. Navy's prosecution a a young sailor  for arson - against the advice of a military judge. The lengthy story can be read in its entirety at the link below. Here is but a snippet:
 "The command investigation traced the problems back to when the Bonhomme Richard docked for maintenance and Navy leaders throughout the ranks abandoned responsibility for the ship’s safety. Risks mounted, and nobody paid attention. All told, investigators determined that the actions of 17 sailors and officers directly led to the loss of the ship, and those of 17 more, including five admirals, contributed. The long list was a staggering indictment of everyone from sailors to top admirals who had failed in their jobs. The NCIS investigation, however, laid the blame at the feet of a single young sailor. The true culprit, the one who bore responsibility for the billion-dollar loss, the Navy said, was then-20-year-old Ryan Mays. And for that, he should face life in prison. The Navy continued its pursuit of Mays, even as a military judge recommended against it, bluntly calling out the lack of evidence and citing the findings of the Navy’s own command investigation. Starting this week, Mays is being court-martialed in a military trial in San Diego for aggravated arson and willfully hazarding a vessel."

The entire story can be read at:

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: I am monitoring this case/issue/resurce. Keep your eye on the Charles Smith Blog for reports on developments. The Toronto Star, my previous employer for more than twenty incredible years, has put considerable effort into exposing the harm caused by Dr. Charles Smith and his protectors - and into pushing for reform of Ontario's forensic pediatric pathology system. The Star has a "topic"  section which focuses on recent stories related to Dr. Charles Smith. It can be found at: http://www.thestar.com/topic/charlessmith. Information on "The Charles Smith Blog Award"- and its nomination process - can be found at: http://smithforensic.blogspot.com/2011/05/charles-smith-blog-award-nominations.html Please send any comments or information on other cases and issues of interest to the readers of this blog to: hlevy15@gmail.com.  Harold Levy: Publisher: The Charles Smith Blog;



SEE BREAKDOWN OF  SOME OF THE ON-GOING INTERNATIONAL CASES (OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENTAL USA) THAT I AM FOLLOWING ON THIS BLOG,  AT THE LINK BELOW:  HL:


https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/120008354894645705/4704913685758792985


FINAL WORD:  (Applicable to all of our wrongful conviction cases):  "Whenever there is a wrongful conviction, it exposes errors in our criminal legal system, and we hope that this case — and lessons from it — can prevent future injustices."

Lawyer Radha Natarajan:

Executive Director: New England Innocence Project;


—————————————————————————————————


FINAL, FINAL WORD: "Since its inception, the Innocence Project has pushed the criminal legal system to confront and correct the laws and policies that cause and contribute to wrongful convictions.   They never shied away from the hard cases — the ones involving eyewitness identifications, confessions, and bite marks. Instead, in the course of presenting scientific evidence of innocence, they've exposed the unreliability of evidence that was, for centuries, deemed untouchable." So true!

Christina Swarns: Executive Director: The Innocence Project

Sunday, September 25, 2022

Shawn Parcells: Kansas: Notorious self-taught pathology assistant who purported to be a "forensic pathology expert' sentenced to six years in prison after pleading guilty to running an illegal autopsy scheme, 'The Blaze' (Reporter Candace Hathaway) reports..."Parcells gained notoriety in 2014 when he and a professional pathologist were hired to perform an autopsy of Michael Brown, the young man fatally shot by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri. At the time, Parcells appeared on several media outlets claiming to be a 'forensic pathology expert'. He received criticism from CNN after an investigation into Parcells' background exposed his lack of professional training. The CNN article reported that Andrew County, Missouri, hired Parcells to perform an autopsy on Robert Forrester, 74, who doctors concluded died from a brain bleed. Parcells admitted to conducting the examination without a professional pathologist present. The autopsy report, which was used as evidence against the suspected murderer of Forrester, had to be thrown out by the court since it was not performed by a professional. As a result, the suspect in the case was released."


PASSAGE OF THE DAY: "According to court records, as the owner of National Autopsy Services, Parcells convinced a client to pay $5,000 for an autopsy performed by a professional pathologist.   The emailed autopsy report showed that Parcells conducted the examination.   It would be illegal for Parcells to perform an autopsy without the assistance of a trained pathologist.  U.S. District Judge Daniel Crabtree ordered Parcells to pay over $60,000 restitution. Following his prison time, Parcells will serve three years of supervised release.  "The court recommends defendant be designated to the facility at Leavenworth, Kansas, and that he participates in the Residential Drug Abuse Program (RDAP) on defendant's request," the court documents read."

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STORY: Kansas self-taught pathology assistant sentenced for illegal autopsy  scheme, The Blaze (Reporter Candace Hathaway) reports on September 22, 2022.  (Blaze Media describes itself as, "unapologetically pro-America and pro-free speech, and although the views of our many hosts and writers are varied and diverse, our opinions tend to fall somewhere on the center-right to right of the modern American political spectrum.)

GIST: "A self-taught pathology assistant from Kansas confessed to running an illegal autopsy scheme and was sentenced on Monday to nearly six years in prison for wire fraud.

Shawn Parcells, 42, pleaded guilty in May to one count of wire fraud, according to the U.S. attorney's office. 


Another nine fraud charges were dropped as part of the plea deal, reported the Topeka Capital-Journal.


The Topeka native was a self-taught pathology assistant with no formal training.


 According to court records, as the owner of National Autopsy Services, Parcells convinced a client to pay $5,000 for an autopsy performed by a professional pathologist. 


The emailed autopsy report showed that Parcells conducted the examination. 


It would be illegal for Parcells to perform an autopsy without the assistance of a trained pathologist.


U.S. District Judge Daniel Crabtree ordered Parcells to pay over $60,000 restitution. Following his prison time, Parcells will serve three years of supervised release.


"The court recommends defendant be designated to the facility at Leavenworth, Kansas, and that he participates in the Residential Drug Abuse Program (RDAP) on defendant's request," the court documents read.


U.S. Attorney for the District of Kansas Duston Slinkard said, "It's troubling whenever criminals deceptively present themselves as professionals to commit fraud on unwitting victims, but the fact that Parcells' schemes were predicated upon exploiting the grief and bereavement of others makes his act a particularly predatory crime.


Parcells gained notoriety in 2014 when he and a professional pathologist were hired to perform an autopsy of Michael Brown, the young man fatally shot by a police officer in Ferguson, Missouri.


At the time, Parcells appeared on several media outlets claiming to be a forensic pathology expert. 


He received criticism from CNN after an investigation into Parcells' background exposed his lack of professional training.


The CNN article reported that Andrew County, Missouri, hired Parcells to perform an autopsy on Robert Forrester, 74, who doctors concluded died from a brain bleed.


 Parcells admitted to conducting the examination without a professional pathologist present.


The autopsy report, which was used as evidence against the suspected murderer of Forrester, had to be thrown out by the court since it was not performed by a professional. 


As a result, the suspect in the case was released.


According to the Associated Press, Parcells made over $1.1 million from 2016 to 2019 from approximately 350 clients for autopsies.


 However, court records showed that Parcells did not perform most of the autopsies.


Parcells was convicted of six counts, including three felonies, of criminal desecration in 2019.


In August 2022, Parcells was prohibited from conducting business in Kansas and sentenced to pay more than $500,000 in fines for illegally performing autopsies. 


He was ordered to pay another $250,000 restitution to 82 former clients."


The entire story can be read at:


https://www.theblaze.com/news/kansas-self-taught-pathology-assistant-sentenced-for-illegal-autopsy-scheme

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: I am monitoring this case/issue/resurce. Keep your eye on the Charles Smith Blog for reports on developments. The Toronto Star, my previous employer for more than twenty incredible years, has put considerable effort into exposing the harm caused by Dr. Charles Smith and his protectors - and into pushing for reform of Ontario's forensic pediatric pathology system. The Star has a "topic"  section which focuses on recent stories related to Dr. Charles Smith. It can be found at: http://www.thestar.com/topic/charlessmith. Information on "The Charles Smith Blog Award"- and its nomination process - can be found at: http://smithforensic.blogspot.com/2011/05/charles-smith-blog-award-nominations.html Please send any comments or information on other cases and issues of interest to the readers of this blog to: hlevy15@gmail.com.  Harold Levy: Publisher: The Charles Smith Blog;


SEE BREAKDOWN OF  SOME OF THE ON-GOING INTERNATIONAL CASES (OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENTAL USA) THAT I AM FOLLOWING ON THIS BLOG,  AT THE LINK BELOW:  HL:


https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/120008354894645705/4704913685758792985


FINAL WORD:  (Applicable to all of our wrongful conviction cases):  "Whenever there is a wrongful conviction, it exposes errors in our criminal legal system, and we hope that this case — and lessons from it — can prevent future injustices."

Lawyer Radha Natarajan:

Executive Director: New England Innocence Project;


—————————————————————————————————


FINAL, FINAL WORD: "Since its inception, the Innocence Project has pushed the criminal legal system to confront and correct the laws and policies that cause and contribute to wrongful convictions.   They never shied away from the hard cases — the ones involving eyewitness identifications, confessions, and bite marks. Instead, in the course of presenting scientific evidence of innocence, they've exposed the unreliability of evidence that was, for centuries, deemed untouchable." So true!

Christina Swarns: Executive Director: The Innocence Project;

Saturday, September 24, 2022

Criminalizing reproduction: (Attacks on Science, Medicine and the Right To Choose): From our (very ugly) 'Sign of the Times" department: Proposed Louisiana bill in which "male politicians are pushing for women who receive abortions to be punished with prison time: Reported by CNN (Reporters Blake Ellis and Melanie Hicken) on September 21, 2022..."Under a bill they promoted, pregnant people could face murder charges even if they were raped or doctors determined the procedure was needed to save their own life. Doctors who attempted to help patients conceive through in-vitro fertilization, a fertility treatment used by millions of Americans, could also be locked up for destroying embryos, and certain contraception such as Plan B would be banned. “The taking of a life is murder, and it is illegal,” state Rep. Danny McCormick told a committee of state lawmakers who considered the bill in May, right after the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe v. Wade was leaked. “No compromises, no more waiting,” Brian Gunter, the pastor who suggested McCormick be the one to introduce the legislation, told the committee."


PASSAGE OF THE DAY: "Only four people spoke against the bill during the committee meeting— all women. They pleaded with the lawmakers to grasp the gravity of the proposed restrictions, which went farther than any state abortion law currently on the books, and warned of unintended consequences. “We need to take a deep breath,” said Melissa Flournoy, a former state representative who runs the progressive advocacy group 10,000 Women Louisiana. She said the bill would only punish women and that there wasn’t enough responsibility being placed on men. But in the end, only one man and one woman, an Independent and a Democrat, voted against it in committee. Seven men on the committee, all Republicans, voted in favor of the bill, moving it one step closer to becoming law."

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PASSAGE TWO OF THE DAY: Men at the helm: A faction of self-proclaimed “abolitionists” are seeking to make abortion laws more restrictive and the consequences of having the procedure more punitive than ever before. Emboldened by the overturning of Roe v. Wade, they say they will not be satisfied until fetuses are given the same protections as all US citizens — meaning that if abortion is illegal, then criminal statutes should be applied accordingly. While major national anti-abortion groups say they do not support criminalizing women, the idea is gaining traction with certain conservative lawmakers. And the activists and politicians leading the charge are nearly always men, CNN found."


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CRIMINALIZING REPRODUCTION: (Attacks on Science, Medicine and the Right To Choose): In recent years, I have taken on the  theme of criminalizing reproduction - a natural theme for a Blog concerned with  flawed science in its myriad forms  - as I am utterly opposed to the current movement in the United States (and some other countries) embodied by the overturning of Roe Versus Wade,  towards imprisoning women and their physicians and others who help them secure a safe abortion,  on the basis of sham science (or any other basis). I can’t remember the source, but agree  totally with the sentiment that control over their reproductive lives is far too important to women in America - or anywhere else -  so they can  participate  equally in the economic and social life of their nations without fear for  loss their freedom at the hands of political opportunists and fanatics. (Far too many of those those around these days.) 

Harold Levy: Publisher; The Charles Smith Blog.

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STORY: "These male politicians are pushing for women who receive abortions to be punished with prison time," by Reporters Blake Ellis and Melanie Hicken, published by CNN on September 21, 2022.

PHOTO CAPTION: "These male politicians are pushing for women who receive abortions to be punished with prison time."


GIST: "A businessman turned state representative from rural Oil City, Louisiana, and a Baptist pastor banded together earlier this year on a radical mission.


They were adamant that a woman who receives an abortion should receive the same criminal consequences as one who drowns her baby.


Under a bill they promoted, pregnant people could face murder charges even if they were raped or doctors determined the procedure was needed to save their own life. Doctors who attempted to help patients conceive through in-vitro fertilization, a fertility treatment used by millions of Americans, could also be locked up for destroying embryos, and certain contraception such as Plan B would be banned.


“The taking of a life is murder, and it is illegal,” state Rep. Danny McCormick told a committee of state lawmakers who considered the bill in May, right after the Supreme Court’s decision to overturn Roe v. Wade was leaked.


“No compromises, no more waiting,” Brian Gunter, the pastor who suggested McCormick be the one to introduce the legislation, told the committee.


Only four people spoke against the bill during the committee meeting— all women. They pleaded with the lawmakers to grasp the gravity of the proposed restrictions, which went farther than any state abortion law currently on the books, and warned of unintended consequences.


“We need to take a deep breath,” said Melissa Flournoy, a former state representative who runs the progressive advocacy group 10,000 Women Louisiana. She said the bill would only punish women and that there wasn’t enough responsibility being placed on men.


But in the end, only one man and one woman, an Independent and a Democrat, voted against it in committee. Seven men on the committee, all Republicans, voted in favor of the bill, moving it one step closer to becoming law.


Men at the helm

A faction of self-proclaimed “abolitionists” are seeking to make abortion laws more restrictive and the consequences of having the procedure more punitive than ever before.


Emboldened by the overturning of Roe v. Wade, they say they will not be satisfied until fetuses are given the same protections as all US citizens — meaning that if abortion is illegal, then criminal statutes should be applied accordingly. While major national anti-abortion groups say they do not support criminalizing women, the idea is gaining traction with certain conservative lawmakers. And the activists and politicians leading the charge are nearly always men, CNN found.


This year, three male lawmakers from Indiana attempted to wipe out existing abortion regulations and change the state’s criminal statutes to apply at the time of fertilization. In Texas, five male lawmakers authored a bill last year that would have made getting an abortion punishable by the death penalty if it had gone into law.


 A state representative in Arizona introduced legislation that included homicide charges — saying in a Facebook video that anyone who undergoes an abortion deserves to “spend some time” in the Arizona “penal system.” 


And a male Kansas lawmaker proposed a bill that would amend the state’s constitution to allow abortion laws to pass without an exception for the life of the mother.


While most in the anti-abortion movement believe that human life begins at conception, “abolitionists” are particularly uncompromising in how they act on their beliefs — comparing abortion to the Holocaust and using inflammatory terms such as “slaughter” and “murder” to describe a medical procedure that most Americans believe should be legal in all or most cases.


Bradley Pierce, the attorney who helped draft the Louisiana bill, said his organization has been involved with many of the “abolition” bills that have been introduced in more than a dozen states. All of this proposed legislation would make it possible for women seeking abortions to face criminal charges.


An overwhelming majority of Americans said in a Pew Research Center poll they don’t believe men should have a greater say on abortion policy, but that is what is happening. Experts told CNN that the male dominance fits within the anti-abortion movement’s current framing as being focused on “fetal personhood” and “fetal rights” as opposed to maternal rights.


Eric Swank, an Arizona State University professor who has studied gender differences in anti-abortion activists, said his research found that while men aren’t necessarily more likely to consider themselves to be “pro-life” than women, they “are more willing to take the adamant stance of no abortion under any conditions.”


The most restrictive bills, which don’t include explicit “life of the mother” exceptions and would charge those who receive abortions with homicide, have failed to make it to the full vote needed for passage. But others that prohibit abortions even in cases of rape and incest have taken hold in around a dozen states, including Missouri, Alabama and Tennessee, according to Guttmacher Institute.


Those laws, CNN found, were also overwhelmingly passed into law by male legislators. While female Republicans almost always voted in favor of the legislation, gender imbalances within state legislatures, as well as the fact that female lawmakers were more likely to be Democrats, fueled the voting gap. And male Democratic lawmakers were far more likely than female Democrats to cross the aisle to vote in favor of the abortion bans, according to CNN’s analysis.


The Texas Heartbeat Act, for example, outlawed nearly all abortions in the state when it criminalized the procedure as soon as a heartbeat could be detected — as early as six weeks of pregnancy. While men made up nearly three quarters of the 177 lawmakers who voted, nearly 90% of those who voted in favor of the bill were men.


Encouraging ‘sacrificial behavior’

Scott Herndon, a bearded Idaho man and father of eight, once believed abortion was an issue that should be discussed “between a woman and her physician.”


He remembers watching the classic 80s movie, “Fast Times at Ridgemont High,” and being relatively ambivalent about the fact that one of the characters received an abortion. He didn’t become a Christian until 1996, the same year he drove his pregnant girlfriend along the streets of San Francisco on his motorcycle. 


The pregnancy was unexpected, but that life development, along with a newfound religious practice, led Herndon to spend a lot of thinking about “the miraculous nature of life.” Over the years he began to feel compelled to get involved with the anti-abortion movement.


His daughter is now 25, and he and his wife went on to have seven more children. A longtime member of the Idaho Republicans, he told CNN he decided to run for state Senate this year with a mission of fighting government encroachment. Herndon, who touts his competitive shooting experience in high school and college, is a staunch supporter of the right to bear arms and strongly opposes vaccine mandates. He describes himself as a “true family-values conservative,” noting that his sons help him with his home-building business while his five daughters live on the family farm, milking cows, and raising chickens and pigs.


One of his longterm goals if elected, he said, is to abolish abortion in the state.


“Success depends on changing hearts and minds,” he said. “I liken the effort to Martin Luther King Jr.’s civil rights movement for desegregation and equal treatment of African Americans.”

This comparison is one that abortion rights activists take serious issue with. “Let’s be clear: appropriating the word ‘abolition’ is particularly contemptuous,” a spokesperson for Planned Parenthood Federation of America said in a statement to CNN. “That word is a symbol of freedom and this group wants to put people behind bars for exercising their right to bodily autonomy.”


Herndon, however, says women should embrace their instinctual “sacrificial behavior.”

“If a mother is in a life raft with a child and there’s only enough food and water to save one, I’m guessing most mothers would not throw their child overboard and drown them,” he said in an interview with CNN when asked about medical circumstances where a doctor may deem an abortion necessary to save a woman’s life, such as a cancer diagnosis that requires aggressive treatment.


As part of their efforts to abolish abortion, which is generally defined as the termination of a pregnancy, Herndon and others in the anti-abortion movement are attempting to redefine the term to the “intentional killing” of a fetus.


That way, they claim, the lives of mothers could still be saved as long as doctors make an equal attempt to save the fetus.


Gunter, meanwhile, said he disagrees with the medical establishment and does not believe abortion is ever medically necessary.


Medical and legal experts told CNN this is a dangerous and inaccurate claim, saying there are plenty of situations that could result in women dying or being put through unnecessary bodily harm if explicit exceptions for the health and life of the mother are not included in the laws regulating abortion.


Louise King, a gynecologic surgeon and professor at Harvard Medical School, said the claims are “disingenuous at best and intentional dissemination of misinformation at worst” and questioned why they “can’t simply trust medical professionals to do their job.”


“Most of these ‘arguments’ are attempts to impose a minority religious view on the majority of our citizens,” she said. “This is not a matter of belief or opinion. This is a highly inappropriate way to use our legislative system.”


An immediate abortion may be needed if a pregnant person’s water breaks before 20 weeks, King said, or when patients have pre-existing conditions that could lead to heart or liver failure or they need aggressive treatment for a disease like cancer that would severely harm — if not destroy — the fetus. An “equal attempt to save the fetus” would require putting the life of the pregnant person at risk,” she said, adding that it is also not the well established standard of care.


Doctors also note that abortion bans take away a patient’s ability to make decisions about their own health and pregnancy, sometimes forcing them to endure pregnancies and deliveries of fetuses that will not survive.


Stories like this are already making headlines as laws become increasingly restrictive. In some cases, doctors are already afraid to perform abortions in cases where a mother’s health is at risk, even with so called “life of the mother” exceptions in place. In Texas, one woman learned that her baby had heart, lung, brain, kidney and genetic defects and would either be stillborn or die within minutes of birth. 


At the same time, doctors warned her that carrying the baby to term threatened her own life, but she says she was still refused an abortion by doctors who said it could run afoul of the state’s strict six-week abortion ban. She ultimately drove 10 hours to a New Mexico abortion clinic to undergo the procedure. “I’m still so angry and hurt about it that I can hardly see straight,” she wrote on Facebook the next day.


Another Texas woman spoke out about being forced to carry her dead fetus for weeks after suffering a miscarriage. In Louisiana, a woman carrying a fetus without a skull was reportedly not allowed to get an abortion, while another was reportedly denied an abortion and instead forced into hours of labor when her water broke at 16 weeks, long before the fetus was viable.


Herndon agreed that the health of the pregnant woman should be considered, but he worries that the medical community automatically prioritizes the mother’s life and does not treat the fetus as a person until birth, saying this needs to change. 


And he said that while locking up women is not his objective, it only makes sense for homicide charges to apply to a woman who chooses to undergo an abortion if fetuses are given equal protections under the law.


As chair of his county’s Republican Party, he attended the Idaho Republican convention in July and proposed an official change to the party platform in support of an amendment to the state constitution that would “strengthen” the rights of fetuses.


After it easily passed the vote, a fellow Republican delegate took the floor with a proposal that was not met with the same support. She wanted to make sure an exception was included in the party platform for abortions needed for a woman’s physical and mental health, Herndon recounted.

A heated debate ensued, with Herndon describing the proposal as not carefully crafted and unnecessary. The proposal was ultimately rejected by a margin of nearly 3 to 1, according to news reports. The Idaho Republican Party did not respond to requests for comment.

No exceptions

Back in 2019, a bill that would criminalize abortion even in cases of rape and incest was placed in front of Alabama’s legislature — a move so extreme that a number of high-profile Republicans initially said it went too far.


When the bill reached the state Senate, 25 male legislators voted on party lines to enact it, and the state’s female governor signed it into law.


A federal judge blocked it from taking effect, but it had an immediate domino effect as other states followed suit. Most of the laws, including near-total abortion bans known as “trigger” laws and six-week “heartbeat” bills, weren’t able to take effect at the time either, but they are being implemented across the country now that Roe v. Wade has been overturned.


This wave of unprecedented restrictions shows the power of the anti-abortion movement and how the Republican Party has shifted to appeal to a small but fervent group of voters, experts said.


“The idea that a fully human life with full moral worth begins at conception is not an extreme view in the pro-life movement,” said Ziad Munson, a sociology professor at Lehigh University who has researched the movements on both sides of the abortion debate. “The real issue is the degree of power the movement has over the Republican Party in the political arena, where such viewpoints have – at least until recently – been outside the mainstream.”


And in recent years, a particular brand of Republican candidate has become more prominent — one that touts the “Big Lie” that the 2020 election was stolen, doesn’t trust science and consider themselves to be Christian Nationalists, said Mary Ziegler, a law professor at the University of California, Davis.


“Even a more moderate candidate may feel that they have to toe the line in what the anti-abortion movement is saying, and what (the movement) wants is changing,” said Ziegler, who has studied the anti-abortion movement’s influence on US politics. “So who you are catering to if you’re the Republican Party is changing.”


As a result, she said, what would have previously been considered a disqualifying stance on abortion for most voters is one of the issues now being used by a growing number of Republican candidates for state and federal office in the hopes of securing their party’s nomination.


During the primary season earlier this year, two of the leading Republican candidates for governor of Pennsylvania said in a debate that they support banning abortion under any circumstances, including if the mother’s life is at risk. “I don’t give way to exceptions,” said Doug Mastriano, who will be on the ticket in November to succeed incumbent Democratic governor Tom Wolf, who has vetoed a number of abortion bans passed by the Republican-controlled state legislature.


Men running for a number of statewide offices in Georgia have also vocalized their support of total abortion bans. “There’s no exception in my mind,” former football star Herschel Walker, a Republican who is running for the US Senate, told reporters.


Mastriano and Walker have not expressed support for prosecuting women who have abortions. They did not respond to CNN’s requests for comment.


While an overwhelming majority of Americans support legalized abortion when a woman’s life or health is at risk, Ziegler said the disappearing “life of the mother” exception stems from a deep distrust of both women, science and the medical establishment. The new focus on punishing women for undergoing abortions — as seen in several bills recently proposed — is also only likely to intensify, she said. As abortion providers close up shop in states with bans, it is going to become increasingly difficult to charge doctors if women travel to other states for the procedure.

“That’s going to make it more appealing to punish women,” Ziegler said.

‘Abolitionist, not pro-life’

For pastor Gunter in Lousiana, the “pro-life establishment” is not taking a hard enough stand against abortion.


He told CNN he doesn’t think someone can be truly “pro-life” while also believing that abortion is acceptable in certain circumstances. He said he will support nothing short of an all-out abortion ban with homicide charges and that unlike some of his peers, he refuses to sacrifice his principles for political reasons.


Gunter, who “grew up in church in diapers” and is now in his 30s, said in a recent speech that he once believed that opposing abortion simply meant voting for “pro-life” candidates. But when a seminary professor invited him and other men to spread the gospel outside an abortion clinic in 2008, he said everything changed.


That day, he said he watched 15 women go inside the clinic and “murder their children.” One of them, Gunter said, couldn’t have been older than 13 and he believed she was being forced to undergo the procedure by her mother.


“She’s a child, and her mother pulled her into that clinic,” said Gunter. “That day changed my life. I went home, and I was newly married… (my wife) was pregnant with our first child. I’d been seeing ultrasound pictures of my son and I thought to myself ‘My God, someone killed a child just like my son, same age as my son, looks like my son. How can they do that?”


After that, he says he began confronting women as they entered abortion clinics every week. 


And in an attempt to create more sweeping change, he decided to get involved politically. He said he approached Rep. McCormick, who did not respond to CNN’s requests for comment, earlier this year about the Louisiana bill that ended up making waves across the country. 


It even sparked outrage from the largest anti-abortion group in the state — one that Gunter said he had worked for but recently parted ways with because he felt it wasn’t doing enough to outlaw abortion.


Gunter’s impassioned plea at the committee hearing in May was met with applause, and the vote in favor of moving the bill to the full House ultimately came down to a group of state lawmakers that included a former law enforcement officer, a criminal defense and personal injury attorney and an entrepreneur who makes a living designing “man caves” and selling game room furniture.


Lawmakers then gathered on the House floor to debate the bill while dozens of supporters gathered outside the chambers in what resembled a church service, reciting Bible passages and swaying together while singing hymns such as “Amazing Grace.”


 Jeff Durbin, an Arizona-based pastor and head of a Christian production company Apologia Studios, which has more than 300,000 subscribers on YouTube, emceed and live-streamed the event. Durbin, who once played Michelangelo and Donatello in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise and became fervently religious after overdosing on ecstasy, is now “unapologetically seeking to criminalize and eliminate all forms of abortion without exception.” 


He did not respond to requests for comment.



He and five other men addressed the crowd at the state capitol, citing proverbs and describing women who get abortions as murderers.


“We have… a righteous bill that punishes those who choose to murder their children,” T. Russell Hunter, the founder of anti-abortion group Free the States, yelled into the microphone, saying that any truly “pro-life” law should hold pregnant women accountable for their decisions — not just the medical providers. “Abortionists do not wake up and go out into the culture looking for children to kill; mothers bring their babies to them to be murdered. They are guilty…they have murdered their children under the color of law and the Lord God hates it.”



Hunter’s group describes itself as “abolitionist, not pro-life” — echoing Gunter’s argument that many in the movement are compromising on their values. “While many who call themselves pro-life agree with us that abortion is murder,” Free the States writes on its website, “abortion has not been opposed by the pro-life political establishment in a manner consistent with its being murder.” Hunter told CNN this movement is not “about wanting to punish women or something silly like that,” and that anyone involved in the decision to terminate a pregnancy should face criminal charges — including fathers.


“Pray for the legislators here,” Durbin, who also runs End Abortion Now, said at the capitol rally.


But this time, the prayers went unfulfilled.


Inside the House chamber, one of seven men to initially vote in favor of the proposed legislation, Rep. Alan Seabaugh, a Republican who describes himself as “pro-life,” apologized for his vote. He said he believed the bill was unconstitutional, “makes criminals out of women.” Other Republican lawmakers and anti-abortion advocates in the state also came out hard against the bill, saying it went too far — including a state representative who said her grandson wouldn’t exist if it weren’t for in vitro fertilization (IVF).


The bill never went to a full vote.


It was the first time such an extreme anti-abortion measure made it out of any state committee, however, and the vocal opposition has not deterred Gunter. He plans to work with McCormick, the Louisiana lawmaker, to introduce a similar bill next year.

Momentum, he told CNN, is only building in the wake of the Supreme Court’s recent decision."



PUBLISHER'S NOTE: I am monitoring this case/issue/resurce. Keep your eye on the Charles Smith Blog for reports on developments. The Toronto Star, my previous employer for more than twenty incredible years, has put considerable effort into exposing the harm caused by Dr. Charles Smith and his protectors - and into pushing for reform of Ontario's forensic pediatric pathology system. The Star has a "topic"  section which focuses on recent stories related to Dr. Charles Smith. It can be found at: http://www.thestar.com/topic/charlessmith. Information on "The Charles Smith Blog Award"- and its nomination process - can be found at: http://smithforensic.blogspot.com/2011/05/charles-smith-blog-award-nominations.html Please send any comments or information on other cases and issues of interest to the readers of this blog to: hlevy15@gmail.com.  Harold Levy: Publisher: The Charles Smith Blog;



SEE BREAKDOWN OF  SOME OF THE ON-GOING INTERNATIONAL CASES (OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENTAL USA) THAT I AM FOLLOWING ON THIS BLOG,  AT THE LINK BELOW:  HL:


https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/120008354894645705/4704913685758792985




FINAL WORD:  (Applicable to all of our wrongful conviction cases):  "Whenever there is a wrongful conviction, it exposes errors in our criminal legal system, and we hope that this case — and lessons from it — can prevent future injustices."

Lawyer Radha Natarajan:

Executive Director: New England Innocence Project;


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FINAL, FINAL WORD: "Since its inception, the Innocence Project has pushed the criminal legal system to confront and correct the laws and policies that cause and contribute to wrongful convictions.   They never shied away from the hard cases — the ones involving eyewitness identifications, confessions, and bite marks. Instead, in the course of presenting scientific evidence of innocence, they've exposed the unreliability of evidence that was, for centuries, deemed untouchable." So true!

Christina Swarns: Executive Director: The Innocence Project;